Public health refers to the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting healththrough organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals." It is concerned with threats to health based on population health analysis.
What is a public health program?
Public health is the science of protecting and improving the health of families and communities through promotion of healthylifestyles, research for disease and injury prevention and detection and control of infectious diseases. Overall, public health is concerned with protecting the health of entire populations.
What is a public health issue?
The public health field confronts global health issues, such as improving access to healthcare, controlling infectious disease, and reducing environmental hazards, violence, substance abuse, and injury. It spans many disciplines and is regularly spotlighted in popular culture and media
Federal pesticide law requires EPA, in coordination with the United States Department of Health and Human Services and the United States Department of Agriculture, to identify pests of significant public health importance. This list is derived in large part from review of the pesticide/pest combinations for which efficacy (product performance) data are generally required to be submitted and reviewed before registration. In no way should this be interpreted to mean that EPA has or would base any regulatory action solely on this list. EPA is publishing this list separate from any statutory or regulatory conclusions which may be associated with public health pesticides.
Following is a brief description of some of the identified pests or category of pests and an explanation for designating each as a public health pest:
Cockroaches: The listed cockroaches are controlled to halt the spread of asthma, allergy, and food contamination.Body, head, and crab lice. These lice are surveyed for and controlled to prevent the spread of skin irritation and rashes, and to prevent the occurrence of louse-borne diseases such as epidemic typhus, trench fever, and epidemic relapsing fever in the United States.Mosquitoes. Mosquitoes are controlled to prevent the spread of mosquitoes bearing such diseases as malaria; St. Louis, Eastern, Western, West Nile and LaCrosse encephalitis; yellow fever and dengue fever.Ticks: The various tick species transmit diseases such as Lyme disease, tick-borne relapsing fever, ehrlichiosis, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.Bed bugs: Controlled because their bites can cause allergic reactions.Various rats and mice. The listed rats and mice include those which are controlled to prevent the spread of rodent-borne diseases and contamination of food for human consumption.Various microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and protozoans. The listed microorganisms are the subject of control programs by public health agencies and hospitals for the purpose of preventing the spread of numerous diseases.Reptiles and birds. The listed organisms are controlled to prevent the spread of disease and the prevention of direct injury.Various mammals. The listed organisms have the potential for direct human injury and can act as disease reservoirs (i.e., rabies, etc.).